Welcome to School of Sea Power, Sustainable Ocean Group Energy Team.

renewable power sources, such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass, have the potential to become a significant global energy source. Unlike hydrocarbon fuels, renewable power sources do not produce harmful emissions that contribute to climate change and environmental degradation. Additionally, renewable power sources are abundant and can be harnessed in many parts of the world, making them a potentially viable solution to the world’s energy needs.

The global adoption of renewable power has been increasing steadily in recent years, with many countries investing in large-scale renewable energy projects. Some countries have even set ambitious targets to transition to 100% renewable power.

However, the adoption of renewable power as a global energy source is not without challenges. One of the main challenges is the intermittency of some renewable power sources, such as solar and wind, which can make it difficult to ensure a steady supply of electricity. Additionally, the upfront costs of renewable energy infrastructure can be high, which may deter some countries from investing in these technologies.

Despite these challenges, renewable power has the potential to play a significant role in the global energy mix. As technology continues to improve and costs come down, it is likely that we will see an even greater adoption of renewable power in the coming years.


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This website shows the breadth of our company’s experience. We look forward to assisting you.

SOSP Power is developing

new solutions for sustainable energy
and is managed by Tom Thomas Devine & James O'Connor

Targeting Our Oceans Constant & Predictable Energy supply is nature at her best

Targeting Our Oceans Constant & Predictable Energy supply is nature at her best



Limerick Wave

Limerick Wave Ltd is a wave energy research company which focuses on the development of Power Take Off (PTO) systems. The company was set up 10 years ago by Patrick Kelly, who has over forty years’ experience in tool design working at the University of Limerick. Patrick was later joined by Dr. Patrick Walsh BEng, PhD, CEng, who is a lecturer in the Mechanical and Automobile Department at Limerick Institute of Technology (LIT).

Limerick Wave’s mission is to turn the mechanical power of the waves (tides) into electrical power for general consumption. Limerick Wave Ltd. has developed an innovative Power Take Off (PTO) technology called Aontreo. The use of the PTO technology in this area is novel in that, its rotation is uni-directional, despite the bi-directional natural oscillation of the flotation device.

• Patent Application No. 10723800.8
• Patent Grant No. 2425123

The Aontreo PTO is the result of ten years of PTO development, the first PTO design was tested by the Hydraulics and Maritime Research Centre (HMRC) at University College Cork in 2010. The proof of concept gave them the motivation to progress the PTO research work. The challenge for PTOs used by any wave energy converter (WEC) is to transform the high torque low velocity mechanical power of the waves into rotational power to turn an electrical generator. That is, the Aontreo PTO produces electricity as the sea waves move up and down.

The Aontreo PTO is a Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) that seamlessly turns the bi-directional natural oscillation of a WEC flotation device into uni-directional rotation to turn an electrical generator.

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Floating Solar PV.

Floating solar PV (photovoltaic) systems are solar power plants that are installed on the surface of water bodies, such as ponds, reservoirs, and lakes. The basic idea behind floating solar PV is to utilize the water surface area, which otherwise remains unused, for the installation of solar panels. These panels are designed to float on the water surface, secured by anchors or mooring systems.

The floating solar PV system consists of several components, including solar panels, floats, mooring systems, anchoring systems, electrical cables, inverters, and transformers. The solar panels used in the floating solar PV systems are usually made of crystalline silicon or thin-film technology, and they are designed to be waterproof and UV-resistant to withstand the harsh conditions of being exposed to water for long periods.


Power Generation Services

SOSP operates a range of power generation facilities in Ireland, including wind farms, hydroelectric plants, and thermal power stations. They also provide consultancy services to other energy companies in the areas of power generation and transmission.

Power generation services involve the production, distribution, and management of electrical power. Here are some key aspects of power generation services:

  1. Power Generation: Power generation services involve the production of electrical power from various sources, including hydrocarbon fuels, nuclear power, and renewable sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric power. Power generators are responsible for designing, building, and operating power plants to generate electricity…….

Energy Management Services

SOSP provides energy management services to businesses and organizations to help them reduce their energy consumption and costs. These services include energy audits, energy monitoring, and energy efficiency advice.

Energy Management Services (EMS) are a set of solutions and strategies designed to help organizations optimize their energy use, reduce energy costs, and increase efficiency. EMS can include a wide range of services, including energy auditing, energy procurement, energy conservation measures, and demand response.

Here are some key aspects of EMS:

  1. Energy Auditing: EMS providers conduct energy audits to identify areas of energy waste and recommend solutions to improve energy efficiency. Energy audits typically involve a review of the building’s energy consumption patterns, identification of areas of energy loss, and recommendations for energy-efficient upgrades.


Electrical Contracting Services

SOSP provides electrical contracting services to businesses and organizations, including design, installation, and maintenance of electrical systems.

Electrical contracting services involve the installation, maintenance, and repair of electrical systems for residential, commercial, and industrial properties. Here are some key aspects of electrical contracting services:

  1. Electrical Installation: Electrical contractors are responsible for the installation of electrical systems in buildings, including wiring, lighting, electrical panels, and other electrical components. This involves designing the electrical system to meet the specific needs of the property, obtaining necessary permits and approvals, and installing the system according to local building codes and safety standards.

Energy Trading Services

SOSP trades energy on the wholesale markets, buying and selling electricity and green hydrogen to ensure a secure and reliable supply for its customers.

Energy trading services involve the buying and selling of energy commodities such as electricity, natural gas, crude oil, and other energy products. Here are some key aspects of energy trading services:

  1. Energy Markets: Energy trading services are provided in various energy markets, including physical markets, financial markets, and futures markets. These markets are used to trade energy commodities based on supply and demand, as well as other factors such as weather, geopolitical events, and economic indicators.

Electric Vehicle (EV) Services

SOSP is developing a range of EV services to support the transition to low-carbon transport, including EV charging infrastructure and fleet management services.

Electric Vehicle (EV) Services refer to a range of services that support the use and maintenance of electric vehicles, including charging infrastructure, battery swapping, and vehicle maintenance and repair.

  1. Charging Infrastructure: EV charging infrastructure is an essential service that provides the necessary power to recharge the battery of electric vehicles. Charging infrastructure can be classified into three categories: Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3. Level 1 charging provides power to the vehicle from a standard household outlet, Level 2 charging uses a dedicated charging station, and Level 3, also known as DC fast charging, provides high-voltage DC power to the vehicle for rapid charging.


Research and Development

SOSP invests in research and development to explore new technologies and innovative solutions to the challenges facing the energy sector, such as energy storage and renewable power integration.

Research and Development (R&D) is a process of exploring, creating, and developing new technologies, products, and services. It is a critical aspect of any organization or industry that aims to stay competitive, innovate and drive growth.

R&D involves a systematic process of investigation and experimentation that aims to develop new technologies or improve existing ones. The process typically involves the following stages:

  1. Idea Generation: This involves identifying a problem or an opportunity and generating new ideas for solving it. This can be done through brainstorming sessions, market research, or collaboration with other organizations or experts.

Smart Energy Services

SOSP provides smart energy services to homes and businesses, including smart metering, energy management software, and smart home solutions.

Smart Energy Services refer to a range of energy management solutions that use advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the Internet of Things (IoT) to optimize energy consumption and improve energy efficiency. These services are designed to help individuals, businesses, and governments manage their energy usage more effectively, reduce costs, and lower carbon emissions.

  1. Smart Home Energy Management: This includes the use of smart home automation systems that allow homeowners to control and monitor their energy usage from anywhere. These systems can automatically adjust energy consumption based on occupancy, weather conditions, and other factors to reduce energy waste and save money.


Turbine blades

Turbine blades are a crucial component of a gas or steam turbine. They are responsible for converting the kinetic energy of the steam or gas into rotational energy, which is then used to drive the generator that produces electrical power.

Turbine blades come in different shapes and sizes depending on the type of turbine and its intended use. The most common types of turbine blades include:

  1. Impulse blades: These blades are used in impulse turbines, which are typically used for low-pressure applications. Impulse blades are designed to extract energy from the steam or gas in a single stage, and they are typically curved in shape.

  2. Reaction blades: These blades are used in reaction turbines, which are designed for high-pressure applications. Reaction blades are designed to extract energy from the steam or gas in multiple stages, and they are typically straight or slightly curved in shape.

  3. Compressor blades: These blades are used in gas turbine compressors, which are responsible for compressing the air that is used to fuel the turbine. Compressor blades are typically smaller and more numerous than turbine blades, and they are designed to increase the pressure and velocity of the air.

Turbine blades are typically made of high-strength materials such as titanium, nickel alloys, or composites, which can withstand the high temperatures and stresses generated by the turbine. They are also subject to strict manufacturing tolerances to ensure maximum efficiency and durability.

Plunging waves

Plunging waves, also known as dumping waves, are a type of ocean wave that breaks with a curling motion, creating a vertical, crashing wall of water.

Plunging waves are typically found in areas where the ocean floor abruptly changes depth, such as near shorelines or reefs. As the wave approaches shallow water, the base of the wave slows down due to friction with the ocean floor, causing the top of the wave to continue moving forward and eventually collapsing in a dramatic fashion.

Plunging waves are popular among surfers and bodyboarders, as they provide a challenging and exciting ride. However, they can also be dangerous, as the force of the wave can cause injury or even death if the rider is not experienced or properly equipped.


It is time for Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) to be part of the sustainable energy toolbox at a utility level. Solar and wind renewable power systems are now sustainable technologies which are economically competitive with existing fossil fuel and nuclear options. Even though there have been WEC development efforts as long as there have been industrial solar and wind efforts, WEC systems simply have never made it out of the experimental starting blocks. This paper examines prior efforts and examines why they have failed at a utility level and describes the design and engineering of emerging technologies that could make large scale wave energy conversion competitive with present state of the art large scale wind and solar projects. The SurfWEC concept is introduced as a game changing approach to achieve much lower Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) rates than are achievable with existing WEC approaches by enabling significant increases in kinetic energy input to various WEC designs.

KEY WORDS: renewable power; Marine renewable power; Wave Energy Converter; WEC; Marine Hydrokinetic; MHK; SurfWEC; Future Energy; Sustainable Energ

Energy is the central driver of human development. Human progress is directly related to the way that humans harvest, store, and use energy. In human terms, access to energy is power (Ref. 1,2). Initially humans only harvested energy through hunting and gathering. In primitive societies, humans learned to preserve and store some foods to use when there was limited fresh food available. The food preservation and storage technologies allowed humans to migrate from equatorial climates, where food is continuously available, to parts of the world where most of the food supply is dependent upon the weather in various seasons. With the discovery of fire, humans were able to extend the productive part of their day with light and heat they could control and improve their productivity by building tools from metals. Harnessing of wind allowed humans to increase their transport efficiency through sails, and the invention of steam-powered machines allowed the creation of more productive factories. At that stage, humanity began to transition from a wood to a coal-powered society. In the early 1900’s, humans started transitioning from coal to more efficient oil and gas-powered machines, and in rough terms, it can be noted that in the late 1900’s humanity started taking an interest in more sustainable energy sources for society. The demarcation lines are not all that sharp; in the mid 1900’s nuclear power arrived as a sustainable energy source and other forms of sustainable energy have existed for thousands of years in the form of sail transportation, hydro and windmill power. Wood and other biomass energy, in their purest forms, are also


A study by the Electrical Power Research Institute and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reported an estimated total
available wave energy resource of 2,640 terawatt-hours (TWh) per year and total recoverable wave energy resource
at 1,170 TWh per year for the territorial waters over the Outer Continental Shelf of the United States in 20111. While
Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) systems have been in development since the first patent in 1799, the industry is still
in its infancy globally and large commercial deployments have still not taken place. A key challenge for the commercial
viability of WEC systems is effective extraction of the kinetic energy in waves by the power takeoff systems. Since the
wave form and motion are critical factors influencing the kinetic energy input to WEC power takeoff systems, increasing
the wave steepness acting on the WEC body can significantly enhance the velocities of water particles impacting prime
movers and increase power takeoff performance. The use of variable-depth platforms to enhance wave steepness and
increase power takeoff performance through increased kinetic energy input to prime movers is a novel idea that
provides promise for increasing the capacity factor for WEC systems. The application of a variable-depth platform to
wave energy conversion is discussed and quantified based on wave tank testing, wave theory, and the kinetic energy

period, and wavelength are the determinants of the total available wave power. Wave power varies as the square of the significant wave height (Hs2), linearly with the energy period Te, and is expressed in watts of power per unit of wave crest width (W/m). A theoretical unit wave power calculation (P), which is the power contained in fluxing volumes of the entire resource, can be computed by where Hs and Te are the significant wave height and energy period respectively, and ρ and g are the seawater density and acceleration due to gravity respectively. Wave power flux (P) is a unit measure of power as it pertains to the flux of a unit volume of fluid. In the SI system, the volume is nominally a cubic meter of seawater fluxing in heave about the center of gravity of a wave. These unit volumes can be and are consolidated during shoaling conditions. This version of the power flux equation is a general form which does not use the dispersion relation to calculate the change in wavelength over a platform.


Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) should be part of the sustainable energy toolbox. Solar and wind are now competitive sustainable technologies, but, even though there have been Wave Energy Conversion development efforts as long as there have been solar and industrial wind efforts, wave energy conversion simply has never made it out of the experimental starting blocks. This paper examines prior efforts and examines why they failed and describes emerging technologies that could make large scale wave energy conversion competitive with present state of the art large scale wind and solar

KEY WORDS: renewable power, Marine renewable power, Wave Energy Converter, WEC, Marine Hydrokinetic, MHK, SurfWEC, Future Energy, Sustainable Energy


ABS: American Bureau of Shipping: Standards, Certification, and Classification Agency
Aliquot: A 1.2km x 1.2km portion of a 4.8km x 4.8km BOEM – OCS permit block
BOEM: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Division of the US Department of Interior
DNV-GL: Det Norske Veritas – Germanischer Lloyd: Standards, Certification, and Classification
DNV-OSS-312: document pertaining to: Certification of Tidal and Wave Energy Converters
EMEC: European Marine Energy Centre
ERFD: European Fund for Regional Development
IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission
IEC TC-114: IEC Technical Committee for Marine Energy Standards development and
LCOE: Levelized Cost of Energy
Name Plate Capacity: See Plate Capacity
NJBIN: New Jersey Business Incubation Network
NJ BPU: New Jersey Board of Public Utilities
OCS: Outer Continental Shelf
OREC: Offshore renewable power Certificate (New Jersey state program)
OSW: Offshore Wind
PJM: Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection, a Regional Transmission Operator
(RTO), part of the Eastern Interconnection electric power grid management companies
Plate Capacity: Nameplate capacity, Rated Capacity, maximum electric power output of a
device, not continuously produced using solar, wind, or wave energy conversion devices
PTO: Power takeoff
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SURFWEC: Surf-making Wave Energy Converter
TLP: Tension Leg Platform
USGS: United States Geological Survey
USPTO: United States Patent and Trade Office
Wave Hub: 48MW Wave power research facility opened off Hayle, Cornwall U.K. in 2010
WEC: Wave Energy Converter
WEHD: Wave Energy Harnessing Device (Raftery acronym associated with patent US8093736B2)

United States Patent

A hydrokinetic device having a water surface float tethered to a Submerged buoyant housing is provided with mechanisms for optimizing the amount of wave energy extracted from the aves by the device. Based on wave conditions, the optimi ation functionalities include controlling the depth of the housing to produce wave shoaling or storm avoidance, as well as to perform continuous phase control and load control for the purpose of matching the response frequency of the device to the frequency of the incident waves


The magnitude of available ocean energy is staggering. “It has been estimated that if just 0.1 percent of the global ocean energy resource were harnessed, scientists could power the whole world five times over.” (Merry 2005). Ocean surface waves, also called gravity and wind waves, are a large part of the global ocean energy resource. It is documented that surface waves (wind and gravity) contain the highest energy levels in the ocean wave energy spectrum (Fig. 1). As a conservative estimate, at 15 percent overall efficiency, 4 percent of surface waves could power all human energy consumption five times over, and it will be decades or centuries into the future before global energy consumption increases beyond available ocean wave energy. In other words, ocean surface waves can power all human energy consumption for the foreseeable future. Note that the highest wave energy is concentrated in the 1 to 30 second wave periods, and the area under the curve for this region is approximately 10 times the area of the tidal energy represented by the two peaks on the far right of the graph. Long-term annual wave periods off the west coast of North America, ranging from Canada to Mexico, are very consistent at approximately 12 seconds which provides the United States an excellent opportunity to become a world leader in wave energy conversion. Let’s now consider all the places on Earth to harness ocean surface waves. The surface area of Earth’s oceans is approximately 350 million square kilometers (km). Hence, if wave energy was harvested at 15 percent efficiency, the world could be powered by, for example, a 500 by 500 km square wave farm near Alaska, the United Kingdom, Chile, or Australia. These regions contain high concentrations of surface wave energy flux (Fig. 2). Equivalently, four wave farms of 250 by 250 km square in each of these regions could power the world. Harnessing ocean wave energy near Alaska, California, Oregon, Washington, Maine, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey could power the entire continent of North America. Spacing of devices must be considered for design purposes due to wave attenuation factors. Gravity is the restoring force for large waves, and devices that use floatation with a near free-body motion will minimize attenuation.

Waves of Change in Sustainable Energy Use - Ocean Waves as a Source of Utility-Scale Electricity Production for Coastal Communities

The United Nations – Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Agenda 2030 address some of the most pressing global challenges for humanity. With the launch of the decade of action for the SDGs the United Nations General Assembly called for support on the implementation of the 17 SDGs, including SDG 14: “Conserve and sustainably use the ocean, seas, and marine resources for sustainable development”. This work aims at bridging the science-engineering-policy nexus on the use of the oceans for renewable energy, more specifically, the use of wave energy conversion (WEC) systems as part of the marine renewable power nexus. Our work advocates use of the marine hydro-kinetic (MHK) resources including wind-generated surface waves, and aims to inform policy makers and practitioners, in the field of renewable and sustainable use of Earth’s oceans. WEC systems can be made to be commercially-viable by use of “offshore artificial beaches” in the ocean environment. The SurfWEC system design is a commercially-viable WEC technology capable of utility-level electricity generation from ocean waves based on the hydrodynamics and physics of converting incident wavelengths to increased wave heights which, in-turn, reduces the wavelength, while the wave period remains constant. We argue, that once established, those applications will promote social,

"Revolutionizing Wind Power Generation: The Science and Technology behind Bladeless Wind Turbines"

A bladeless wind turbine, also known as a Vortex Induced Vibrations for Energy (VIVACE) system, is a type of wind turbine that doesn’t have any blades. Instead, it uses the principle of vortex shedding to generate electricity.

The VIVACE system consists of a cylinder with an elliptical cross-section that is mounted vertically. The cylinder is designed to oscillate back and forth in response to the wind passing over it, which creates vortices that cause the cylinder to vibrate. The vibration is then converted into electricity using an electromagnetic generator.

One of the advantages of bladeless wind turbines is that they are quieter and less visually obtrusive than traditional wind turbines. They also have a smaller footprint and are easier to maintain since they don’t have any moving parts.

However, bladeless wind turbines are less efficient than traditional wind turbines and are currently more expensive to produce. They also require higher wind speeds to generate electricity, which limits their potential use in areas with lower wind speeds.

Despite these limitations, bladeless wind turbines show promise as a viable alternative to traditional wind turbines, particularly in urban environments where noise and visual pollution are major concerns.

How do bladeless wind turbines work?

  1. Bladeless wind turbines use a phenomenon called vorticity to generate electricity. When wind passes over the surface of the turbine, it creates vortices or swirling patterns of air. These vortices cause the turbine to vibrate and oscillate, which in turn generates electricity through an electromagnetic generator.

  2. Advantages of bladeless wind turbines: Bladeless wind turbines have several advantages over traditional wind turbines, including:

  • They are quieter and produce less noise pollution
  • They are less visually obtrusive and have a smaller footprint
  • They have fewer moving parts, making them easier to maintain and repair
  • They are less harmful to birds and other wildlife
  1. Limitations of bladeless wind turbines: Bladeless wind turbines are less efficient than traditional wind turbines and require higher wind speeds to generate electricity. This limits their use in areas with lower wind speeds. They are also currently more expensive to produce, although this could change as the technology improves and becomes more widely adopted.

  2. Types of bladeless wind turbines: There are several different types of bladeless wind turbines, including:

  • Vortex Shedding Wind Turbines: These turbines use the principle of vortex shedding to generate electricity.
  • Vortex Induced Vibrations for Energy (VIVACE) turbines: These turbines use oscillating cylinders to generate electricity.
  • Tesla-inspired turbines: These turbines use a series of interconnected disks to generate electricity.
  1. Applications of bladeless wind turbines: Bladeless wind turbines are well-suited for use in urban environments where traditional wind turbines are not feasible due to noise and visual pollution concerns. They can also be used in remote areas where traditional wind turbines are difficult to install or maintain.

About the power output of bladeless wind turbines?

  1. Power output of bladeless wind turbines: The power output of a bladeless wind turbine depends on several factors, including the size and design of the turbine, the wind speed, and the efficiency of the generator. Generally, bladeless wind turbines have a lower power output than traditional wind turbines, but they can still generate significant amounts of electricity under the right conditions.

  2. Wind speed requirements: Bladeless wind turbines require higher wind speeds than traditional wind turbines to generate electricity. Generally, they require wind speeds of at least 10 mph (16 km/h) to start generating electricity, and their maximum power output is typically achieved at wind speeds between 25 and 30 mph (40 to 48 km/h).

  3. Efficiency: The efficiency of a bladeless wind turbine depends on its design and the technology used in the generator. While bladeless wind turbines are generally less efficient than traditional wind turbines, they can still achieve efficiencies of up to 50%, depending on the design.

  4. Power output compared to traditional wind turbines: Bladeless wind turbines generally have a lower power output than traditional wind turbines of the same size. However, because they have a smaller footprint and are less visually obtrusive, they can be installed in urban environments where traditional wind turbines are not feasible, making them a valuable addition to the renewable power mix.

  5. Applications: Bladeless wind turbines are well-suited for use in urban environments, where they can be installed on buildings or other structures without causing significant noise or visual pollution. They can also be used in remote areas where traditional wind turbines are difficult to install or maintain, such as off-grid communities or disaster relief sites.

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